Applications of Ultrasonics for Processing and Testing of Proppants
Zak Kypfer and Reid Nelson
The scope of this research project had two parts, with separate objectives. Both parts of the project used a machine that applied ultrasonic waves to our samples. The purpose of Part A was to determine if ultrasonic waves applied to a loaded crush cell has an effect on pack porosity. Previous work by C.R. Bulau (URP) and C. Ireland (SURF) demonstrated that the crush testing results were a strong function of the proppant pack’s porosity. Variable porosity leads to poor repeatability of crush resistance measurements. Three variables were evaluated while measuring porosity: amplitude of the ultrasonic waves, time of exposure, and the effect of closure stress applied to a crush cell during the proppant’s settling process. Our data shows that pack porosity can be stabilized ultrasonically. Part B’s goal was to quantitatively determine the effectiveness of ultrasonically removing fines from proppant by measuring the mass reduction of a sample treated with ultrasonic cleaning. This result was compared to measurements obtained using the API RP19C standard method of testing turbidity. It was hypothesized that proppant that measures a low turbidity will still have a mass percent of fines that are released during ultrasonic cleaning. Our data confirmed Part B’s hypothesis. This project may lead to future studies relating the measured conductivity of the sample after ultrasonic cleansing to the conductivity of the original.
The Life and Death of Viola Gregg Liuzzo
Understanding the legacy of Viola Liuzzo’s life is very complex. She was a woman who put her own safety and interests aside to fight for the equal rights of all people. Despite the fact that her efforts in the civil rights movement were genuine, Liuzzo was a heavily criticized figure by government figures and the media in America during 1965, because she challenged American values as a white northern woman, and went to Selma to work in the civil rights movement. Unknown to her, she was fighting for equal rights as a woman whom was not yet viewed as an equal herself. Due to the misogynistic social stereotypes of the time, it was easy for J. Edgar Hoover, the FBI, and The United States government to discredit Liuzzo, and make her a target of sexism through slander in order to deflect the many transgressions they made. Her wrongful death has led to many unanswered and disturbing questions about the government and the lengths they will go to protect themselves, their agenda, and their mistakes.
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