Methods of rapidly measuring an impedance spectrum of an energy storage device in-situ over a limited number of logarithmically distributed frequencies are described. An energy storage device is excited with a known input signal, and aresponse is measured to ascertain the impedance spectrum. An excitation signal is a limited time duration sum-of-sines consisting of a select number offrequencies. In one embodiment, magnitude and phase of each frequency ofinterest within the sum-of-sines is identified when the selected frequencies and sample rate are logarithmic integer steps greater than two. This technique requires a measurement with a duration of one period of the lowest frequency. In another embodiment, where selected frequencies are distributed in octave steps, the impedance spectrum can be determined using a captured time record that is reduced to a half-period of the lowest frequency.
Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC