US 8,868,363 B2
Electrochemical Impedance Spectrum data are used to predict pulse performace of an energy storage device. The impedance spectrum may be obtained in-situ. A simulation waveform includes a pulse wave with a period greater than or equal to the lowest frequency used in the impedance measurement. Fourier series coefficients of the pulse train can be obtained. The number of harmonic constituents in the Fourier series are selected so as to appropriately resolve the response, but the maximum frequency should be less than or equal to the highest frequency used in the impedance measurement. Using a current pulse as an example, the Fourier coefficients of the pulse are multiplied by the impedance spectrum at corresponding frequencies to obtain Fourier coefficients of the voltage response to the desired pulse. The Fourier coefficients of the response are then summed as reassembled to obtain the overall time domain estimate of the voltage using series analysis.
Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC; Montana Tech of the University of Montana; Qualtech Systems, Inc.