Date of Award

Spring 5-15-1962

Degree Type

Bachelors Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Metallurgical Engineering




Following a review of sixteenth century metallurgical literature and a discussion of Gibbs free energy, this thesis discusses thermodynamic considerations of galena (PbS) reduction by iron from a lead assay of this period. The importance of fluxes in this assay is emphasized. The discussion covers both equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions at 1100 degrees Celsius. Possible substitutes for iron are also covered.

Information from twenty-one small controlled lead assays is correlated with the thermodynamic discussion to determine the purpose of each constituent in the assay.