Katie Lyons, Jerome Downey, Dan Gaede, and Bryce Ruffier
Research funded by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), the Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department at Montana Tech investigated various methods of extracting and refining rare earth elements (REEs) from mineral ores and concentrates. Extensive thermodynamic, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were performed to evaluate the relative stabilities of various REE compounds in order to assess potential methods for selective separation and recovery of specific REEs. Conversion of rare earth oxides (REO) to rare earth chlorides or bromides is a possible initial step in pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processing of REEs. REO can be converted to chlorides or bromides by roasting in the presence of a chloridizing or bromidizing reactant. (e.g. NH4Cl and NH4Br).
Presidents throughout the civil rights era had different ideas and strategies on how to handle the issue and bring about equality for African Americans. When evaluating the different presidents in the era, from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Richard Nixon, it is often found that the main driving forces among them to act on civil rights were necessity and political gain. Factors such as domestic unrest, political aspirations, and political influence forced these presidents to act on, or delay, civil rights legislation whether they had the desire to or not. Although they may have found civil rights to be a moral issue that deserved attention, they were careful not to agitate either Southern Democrats on one end of the spectrum and liberals from both parties on the other end. For this reason, their stances on civil rights evolved to be somewhat moderate.